Values: 5 types + list of values with 25 examples (2023)

Values, changing values, moral values and ethical values are just a few terms from the field of value concepts that constantly crop up in general language usage. Often it is not at all clear what the terms mean exactly. Below we explain what values are and how they come about.

Whether personal values or ideals within a company – you have certainly heard of this term before. Values are meant to create a focus and orientation on meaningful importance.

Definition: what values are

Values: 5 types + list of values with 25 examples (1)

Definition of values

In economics, one tries to measure the value of a good by its scarcity. According to the economic theory of value, the scarcer a good is, the more it is in demand and the more valuable it is.

In what follows, we focus on values in the ethical sense. According to this, values is another term for concepts of value.

In common usage, they refer to properties or qualities of objects, ideas, ideals, states of affairs, patterns of action, character traits, or goods that are considered desirable and morally good within a community of values.

Values are intended to provide orientation and focus on meaningful importance. Other synonyms for values are beliefs, ideals and ethics or principles of life.

How values emerge

Values: 5 types + list of values with 25 examples (2)

Values are passed down through generations

Value concepts are usually passed on to the following generation. They are transmitted by parents, religion or society. Through reactions such as confirmation, punishment or non-observance, we learn which behavior is desirable in our society and which is not.

Also, by observing the behavior of others, we infer which values are predominant.

Types of values

Values can be divided into different categories depending on the context. They can refer to a single person or to a whole group. This group can be defined in different ways.

For example, values can refer to the shared views or ideas of a family or an entire society. Below you will find a selection of different types of values.

Fundamental values

The preferred values of a society give rise to patterns of thought, belief, and action. The fundamental values of a person or a society are called basic values.

A common set of basic values within a society is a prerequisite for a functioning coexistence.

Core values of the United States

Values: 5 types + list of values with 25 examples (3)

Core values of the United States

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The three big core values of Americans are freedom, equality and justice. But there are a few more values that people in the US share:

  • Diversity
  • Equality
  • Individualism
  • Liberty
  • Self-government
  • Unity

Fundamental values of the EU

As a rule, these basic values of a society are difficult to determine because there are variations within the group of people. The EU has defined the fundamental values of the European Union in Article 2 of the Treaty on European Union.

These core values are:

  • Human dignity
  • Freedom
  • Democracy
  • Equality
  • Rule of law
  • Preservation of human rights (including minority rights)

Personal values

In addition to the underlying values in a society, each individual has personal values. You are sometimes more aware of the expression of these values, sometimes less.

You should therefore regularly think about the values you want to live by and whether your actions correspond to these values.

Over the course of your life, these individual values can change. This can happen with increasing age, changed life situations, new insights or strokes of fate. Maybe at a young age it is important to you to succeed at work and earn a lot of money.

After starting a family, it may be more important to you to spend more time with your family. After a serious illness, health may come first.

Existing values may also compete with each other. An example might be the values of success and family.

On the one hand, you may want to climb the career ladder and devote a lot of time to your job to do so, but on the other hand, you want to be there for your family and spend time with them.

So these two values are in conflict with each other and you can’t pursue both to the fullest extent. Accordingly, you must make trade-offs in at least one of the values to make them compatible. To do this, be aware of which value is most important to you personally and adjust your actions accordingly.

Material values

Values: 5 types + list of values with 25 examples (5)

Material value versus ideal value of an heirloom

To clarify what material values are, we should first look at the distinction between the concepts of ideal and material value.

A ideal value is a subjective value that, due to an emotional attachment to the concrete or even abstract object, represents a higher value than it actually has in material terms.

In contrast, the material value means just the value, of which also in the economy of the speech is, thus the economic value. The material value is quantitatively measurable and corresponds to the exchange ratio of another economic object.

Examples of ideal and material value

It is easy to illustrate the difference with a concrete example:

Your deceased grandmother left you a watch. The watch means a lot to you and you always wear it on your person. One day, while shopping, you collide with a person and the watch breaks. You get the watch replaced.

However, you will only be compensated for the material damage, i.e. the material value of the watch, which is 80 euros. However, you do not feel compensated with this payment, because the watch was worth much more to you personally. The ideal value was for you therefore above the material value of the watch.

Examples of material values are:

  • wealth
  • possession
  • power
  • wealth
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Postmaterial values

Values: 5 types + list of values with 25 examples (6)

Postmaterial values

Postmaterialism comes from Latin and means post-materialism. Accordingly, postmaterial values are those that do not involve striving for the tangible material, but striving for what is behind, what is above.

Postmaterialists thus place these abstract, higher values above material values. Examples of postmaterial values are:

  • Self-realization
  • Communication
  • Health
  • Freedom
  • Happiness
  • Culture
  • Education
  • Animal welfare
  • Environmental protection

Christian values

Values: 5 types + list of values with 25 examples (7)

Examples of Christian values

Value systems that have a reference to Christianity are called Christian values. In that case, the Christian faith is said to form the basis for the social action resulting from the values.

Accordingly, Christian values and norms can usually be derived from the Bible. Religious people align their lifestyles with these values in order to live a life pleasing to God.

Examples of Christian values are:

  • faith
  • mercy
  • justice and law
  • love of enemies
  • love of neighbor
  • Ten Commandments

The Ten Commandments are also values of the Christian faith, written down in the form of concrete standards.

So the first commandment is the value of protecting religion with the corresponding norm "I am the Lord your God.You shall not have other gods beside me." The third commandment addresses the protection of the holiday, with the norm "You shall keep the holiday holy."

There are also Christian values that coincide with the basic values of a superior society. For example, the fifth and seventh commandments, whose norms state "Thou shalt not kill" and "Thou shalt not steal," include the values of life and property.

These value systems are necessary for the functioning of a society, regardless of Christian faith.

Value systems

Values: 5 types + list of values with 25 examples (8)

A friendship is based on common values

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Concrete sets of values that are highly regarded in a specific area can be combined into a complex. These collections of values are called value systems. They can arise at the individual level, in interest groups or within a society.

The following are some examples of value systems with a selection of associated values:

  • Democracy: equality, liberty, justice
  • Family: caring, charity, security, affection
  • Friendship: honesty, appreciation, helpfulness, sympathy
  • Success: discipline, determination, reliability
  • Wealth: success, security, freedom, health

Value change

Values are usually passed on to subsequent generations. Unlike attitudes, values are more stable, but nevertheless the prevailing values in some societies are constantly changing. This change in values is referred to as value change.

In developed liberal societies, for example, a change can be observed from the prevailing values of 'wealth' and 'possessions' to the values of 'self-actualization' and 'communication', i.e. a change from material to post-material values.

Values that seem to be decisive for one’s existence are generally quite stable. As already alluded to, the values of an individual person can also change in the course of life. Then this person goes through a personal value change.

Value Conflicts

Values: 5 types + list of values with 25 examples (9)

Certain values can be in conflict with each other

Obviously, there are values that are in conflict with other values, or at least partiallyexclude each other.

As an example, the relationship between the values 'prosperity' and 'sustainability' is often mentioned. In the short term, these values seem to be incompatible, since it appears that in the pursuit of prosperity, sustainability is disregarded, and in the maintenance of sustainability, prosperity suffers.

However, it is important to note at what level one is looking. While prosperity and sustainability seem to be mutually exclusive in the short term, they are compatible in the long term, as prosperity cannot be achieved without sustainability.

On the other hand, there are also values that generally seem to be compatible without any problems, but come into conflict in certain situations.

In the case of value conflicts, a distinction is thus made between the general conflict of abstract values per se and between the concrete normative conflict of goals that arises situationally.A large part of all conflicts, especially political, business, interpersonal conflicts and conflicts with oneself, arise because of different value concepts.

Caution: In addition to value conflicts within a society, there is again the personal value conflict, namely when different value concepts of an individual person partly contradict each other and are not compatible without compromise.

Hierarchy of Values

Thus, there are situations in which one cannot pursue all values equally. Accordingly, a weighing must take place, whereupon the values are ordered in their importance. What this weighting looks like depends on the particular situation or culture.

Again, there is the distinction between values within a society, which are ordered according to their importance for living together, and the weighing of the personal values of an individual.

Values and Norms

Values: 5 types + list of values with 25 examples (10)

From values, corresponding norms can be derived

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Social norms, i.e. concrete rules for social action, can be derived from values. While value concepts are thus general goal orientations of the acting, norms are the action regulations developed from it.

Depending on their importance, one can distinguish between must, should and can norms. While compliance with some norms is mandatory, some are expected and others are welcome.


  • You must pay for goods you take from the supermarket.
  • You should be polite to the cashier.
  • You can bring your own bag for your purchases instead of using a plastic bag.

To ensure that norms are respected, society exerts social control on its members through certain institutions.

The more important a norm is to the functioning of society, the more strictly its observance is enforced. Compliance can be ensured by strong internalization via education or by threat of punishment for non-compliance.

In doing so, each society determines the institutions that exercise these sanctions, such as the police in an entire country or the leadership in a company.


  • Value: honesty
  • Norm: "You shall not lie." / "You shall always tell the truth."

Ethical values and moral values

Values: 5 types + list of values with 25 examples (11)

Ethical values and moral values

Ethics refers to thephilosophical discipline concerned with the study of morality. Ethics is thus the science of morality.

A moral is a system of norms that has right action as its object and that is universally valid. Accordingly, moral means morally good, that is, according to a norm. Ethical, on the other hand, means morally good.

As a rule, we are talking about moral values, i.e. values that are regarded as correct in a society and are a prerequisite for proper social interaction.

The adjective 'ethical', on the other hand, describes only the discussion of morality. Moreover, the adjective is value-free. Thus, one cannot speak of unethical behavior, but one can very well speak of immoral behavior.

In reality, however, the terms are often used synonymously. One speaks of ethical values, although one actually means moral values.

List of Values

Below you will find a list of examples of moral values with their corresponding norms.

Appreciation"You shall treat others with esteem and appreciation!"
Compassion"You shall share in the situation of others!"
Courtesy "You shall display courteous and civilized behavior!"
Creativity"You shall create and invent things!"
Empathy"You shall empathize with the situation and attitudes of other persons!"
Freedom"You shall not deprive anyone of freedom and opportunity!"
Gratitude"You shall appreciate the positive feeling that persons or things give you!"
Health"You shall strive for physical and mental integrity!"
Honesty"You shall not lie!"
Humor"You shall make others laugh!"
Integrity "You shall act according to thy values!"
Justice"You shall treat everyone equally!"
Kindness "You shall communicate with others as if they were thy friend!"
Life"You shall not kill!"
Loyalty"You shall be loyal and supportive to persons and groups!"
Modesty"You shall be content with what is available to thee!"
Peace"You shall resolve conflicts without violence!"
Punctuality"You shall keep agreed upon times!"
Reliability "You shall act in a safe and trustworthy manner and fulfill your promises!
Respect"You shall respect other individuals!"
Responsibility"You shall fulfill assumed tasks and duties in such a way that they take the best possible course and take the resulting consequences upon thyself!"
Safety"You shall strive for a state free of dangers and risks!"
Solidarity "You shall consider in thy actions thy membership in a community!"
Sustainability"You shall honor and care for nature!"
Tolerance"You shall tolerate differences!"

Deniers of binding values

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Deniers of binding values: Nihilists

A person who denies all moral values is called a nihilist. The associated worldview, nihilism, rejects thevalidity of any order of being, knowledge, value, and society.

According to it the individual has thus absolute priority since to him quasi everything is permitted and nothing is forbidden.

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What are the 5 main values? ›

They have to solve problems sensibly from the earliest days of their careers. Obviously, there are many ways to sort and define the five cornerstone values: integrity, accountability, diligence, perseverance, and, discipline.

What are values and examples of values? ›

Values are standards or ideals with which we evaluate actions, people, things, or situations. Beauty, honesty, justice, peace, generosity are all examples of values that many people endorse.

What is a value example? ›

What are examples of values? Examples of values include honesty, integrity, kindness, generosity, courage, and confidence. These values help individuals determine what is desirable or undesirable for them.

What are the types of values? ›

The Three Types of Values Students Should Explore
  • Character Values. Character values are the universal values that you need to exist as a good human being. ...
  • Work Values. Work values are values that help you find what you want in a job and give you job satisfaction. ...
  • Personal Values.
11 Nov 2016

What are 6 examples of values? ›

Some examples are:
  • Loyalty.
  • Honesty.
  • Trust.
  • Ingenuity.
  • Accountability.
  • Simplicity.
  • Respect.
  • Value-centricity.
31 Oct 2022

What are your top 5 values in life? ›

Good luck and let me know how it's going on your journey!
  • Honesty. Honesty should be the bedrock of your foundation, as it will define who you are before you even allow others to know more about you. ...
  • Fire. ...
  • Hard Work. ...
  • Confidence. ...
  • Perseverance.
28 Apr 2017

What are the 10 basic values? ›

Schwartz and colleagues have theorized and shown empirical support for the existence of 10 basic individual values (Schwartz, 1992; Schwartz and Boehnke, 2004). These are: Conformity, Tradition, Security, Power, Achievement, Hedonism, Stimulation, Self-Direction, Universalism, and Benevolence.

What are your values Examples answers? ›

Here are some examples of common corporate values at work: Integrity: Acting with honesty and professionalism, and respecting company policies. Collaboration: Working with colleagues and teams to meet joint goals. Accountability: Taking responsibility for actions and decisions both in team and individual projects.

What are the 12 core values? ›

  • Citizenship: Contributing service and showing responsibility to local, state, and national communities.
  • Compassion: Being kind and considerate, and showing concern for the well-being of others.
  • Cooperation: ...
  • Courage: ...
  • Faith: ...
  • Health and Fitness: ...
  • Honesty: ...
  • Perseverance:

What is the value of 5 answer? ›

5 is in the hundreds and has a place value of 500. 4 is in the tens place and has a place value of 40.

What are the 4 types of values? ›

The four types of value include: functional value, monetary value, social value, and psychological value. The sources of value are not equally important to all consumers.

What is the value of 8? ›

So, the absolute value of is, 8 = 8.

What are the 7 human values? ›

The main Human Values are honesty, fairness, respect, responsibility, caring and citizenship.

What are the 9 values in human values? ›

The participation of human being pertaining to behaviour are the nine values in relationship, viz. trust, respect, affection, care, guidance, reverence, glory, gratitude and love.

What are two examples values? ›

20 core value examples
  • Altruism.
  • Dependability.
  • Integrity.
  • Generosity.
  • Courage.
  • Gratitude.
  • Well-being.
  • Sustainability.
7 Jun 2022

What are the 8 human values? ›

Human values are, for example, respect, acceptance, consideration, appreciation, listening, openness, affection, empathy and love towards other human beings.

What are values in life? ›

Your values are the things that you believe are important in the way you live and work. They (should) determine your priorities, and, deep down, they're probably the measures you use to tell if your life is turning out the way you want it to.

Who gave the 10 basic human values? ›

Schwartz identifies ten basic human values, each distinguished by their underlying motivation or goal, and he explains how people in all cultures recognize them. There are two major methods for measuring these ten basic values: the Schwartz Value Survey. the Portrait Values Questionnaire.

What are your personal values example? ›

Personal Values are “broad desirable goals that motivate people's actions and serve as guiding principles in their lives". Examples of personal values include donating to charity or spending time with family. Everyone has values, but each person has a different value set.

How do I find my five core values? ›

Follow the steps below to generate a list of your core values :
  1. Write down your values. ...
  2. Consider the people you most admire. ...
  3. Consider your experiences. ...
  4. Categorize values into related groups. ...
  5. Identify the central theme. ...
  6. Choose your top core values.

What is an example of a person's values? ›

Family: Prioritizing quality time with family is a common social value. You may feel happiest when surrounded by the people you love. If family is a core value for you, set goals to make time each day to spend with your friends and family.

What are the 6 universal values? ›

Based on the convergence of the three sources of standards, six universal moral values for corporate codes of ethics are proposed including: (1) trustworthiness; (2) respect; (3) responsibility; (4) fairness; (5) caring; and (6) citizenship.

What is place value of 5 example? ›

Place value is the value of each digit in a number. For example, the 5 in 350 represents 5 tens, or 50; however, the 5 in 5,006 represents 5 thousands, or 5,000.

What is the place value of 5 in 25? ›

25 is two 10s and five ones. This two is in the 10's place, the five is in the one's place.

What is the absolute value of 25? ›

|25| means “the absolute value of 25 .” You can use a number line to help you find the absolute value of a number . The point is on 25 on the number line . The distance from 25 to 0 is 5 units . That means the absolute value of 25 is 5 .

What is the value of 4? ›

Place Value

Here the digit 4 is in the tens column. Hence, the place value of the digit 4 is tens or 10s.

What is the value of 11? ›

The absolute value of any positive number is the number itself, so 11 has 11 as an absolute value. Also, the absolute value of a negative number is its (positive) opposite, so also has 11 as an absolute value.

What is the value of 6? ›

Other names of "Absolute Value" are "Numerical value" and "Magnitude". The absolute value of a number is its distance from 0. It is the magnitude of that number without considering its sign. Since 6 is six units away towards right from 0, the absolute value of 6 is just 6.

What are the 3 human values? ›

Peaceful co-existence – Contains values like psychological (benevolence, compassion, consideration, morality, forgiveness etc.) and social (brotherhood, equality, perseverance, respect for others, environmental awareness etc.) Discipline – Contains values like regulation, direction, order etc.

What are the 12 values? ›

The 12 values, written in 24 Chinese characters, are the national values of "prosperity", "democracy", "civility" and "harmony"; the social values of "freedom", "equality", "justice" and the "rule of law"; and the individual values of "patriotism", "dedication", "integrity" and "friendship".

What are your top 3 values in life? ›

To most Americans, the most important values are having a happy relationship, an honest and respectable life, and safety and security. Understanding your own values is a fundamental part of self-awareness and getting to know yourself as a human being.


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